Google manhandled the prevailing situation of its Android operating system in India. It did so by utilizing its “immense monetary muscle” to illicitly hurt contenders. The country’s antitrust power found this in a report on its two-year test seen by Reuters.

Alphabet Inc’s (GOOGL.O) Google reduced “the ability and incentive of device manufacturers to develop and sell devices operating on alternative versions of Android.

The U.S. tech giant told Reuters in a statement it looks forward to working with the CCI to “demonstrate how Android has led to more competition and innovation, not less.”

Google has not received the investigation report, a person with direct knowledge of the situation told Reuters.

The CCI did not respond to a request for comment on the report. Senior CCI members will review the report and give Google another chance to defend itself, before issuing a final order, which could include penalties, said another person familiar with the case.

Google would be able to appeal any order in India’s courts.

Its findings are the latest antitrust setback for Google in India. This is where it faces several probes in the payments app and smart television markets. The company is getting investigated in Europe, the United States, and elsewhere. This week, South Korea’s antitrust regulator fined Google $180 million for blocking customized versions of Android.


Google submitted at least 24 responses during the probe. By doing this further defending itself and arguing it was not hurting competition, the report says.

Microsoft Corp (MSFT.O), Inc (AMZN.O), Apple Inc (AAPL.O), as well as smartphone makers like Samsung and Xiaomi, were among 62 entities. These were the ones that responded to CCI questions during its Google investigation, according to the report.

Android powers 98% of India’s 520 million smartphones, according to Counterpoint Research.

When the CCI ordered the probe in 2019, it said Google appeared to have leveraged its dominance to reduce device makers’ ability to opt for alternate versions of its mobile operating system and force them to pre-install Google apps.

The 750-page report finds the mandatory pre-installation of apps “amounts to imposition of unfair condition on the device manufacturers” in violation of India’s competition law. Whereas, the company leveraged the position of its Play Store app store to protect its dominance.

Play Store policies were “one-sided, ambiguous, vague, biased and arbitrary”. In that time, Android has been “enjoying its dominant position” in licensable operating systems for smartphones and tablets since 2011.

This was when two Indian junior antitrust research associates and a law student filed a complaint, Reuters reported.

India remains a key growth market for Google. It said last year it would spend $10 billion in the country over five to seven years through equity investments and tie-ups. This remains its biggest commitment to a key growth market.

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